“School of Athens” – Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino)
The fresco in the Apostolic Palace of the Vatican is widely considered to be the perfect embodiment of the classical period in the High Renaissance.
The Ashmolean – Museum of Art & Archaeology. Ashmolean.museum. Retrieved on 2012-3-31.
The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore (English: Basilica of Saint Mary of the Flower) was consecrated in 1436 in Florence, Italy. It’s Duomo (Dome) was influenced and designed directly by the Pantheon’s dome in Rome.
Discuss how Renaissance ideas are expressed in the
Italian art of the period, referring to specific works of art and artists.
Renaissance, spanning from the fourteenth to early sixteenth century, was a
rebirth of art and literature after the bleak era known as the Middle Ages.
During this rebirth, classical themes and focus on the ability of an individual
– a concept drawn from the prevalent philosophy of the age, Humanism – as well
as ecclesiastical topics, flourished in the works of such artists as
Michelangelo, Leonardo DaVinci, and Raphael.
of Athens by Raphael
Slave by Michelangelo
Focus on the Ability of the
style of mannerism prevalent in Raphael’s later works
sketches (Vitruvian Man)
Last Supper by DaVinci
on the Rocks by DaVinci
Analyze three relationships between Romanticism and
In the early
nineteenth century, a widespread and general movement of nationalism swept
across the countries of Europe. Romanticism, a movement in art and literature
which began partially as a revolt against industrialization and which stressed
the importance of nature, emotion, and grandeur, was soon associated with the
national movement. The relationship between the two can be seen in the
personage of Goethe, as well as in the works of English Romantics and Romantic
Goethe and Germany
as a sort of hero for his renown
of issues concerning his own nation (Sorrow of Young Werther)
symbol of German Romanticism (provides rallying point for German people
The Works of English Romantics
Southey’s disgust at the rise of industry in Manchester
Shows his wish that England
(such as Wordsworth’s “Tinturn Abbey”)
their nation in a good light (not always the truest)
on brilliant landscapes
in one’s nation inspired exaggeration of greatness
Assess the impact of the Scientific Revolution on
religion and philosophy in the period 1550 to 1750.
the period of 1550-1750 the Scientific Revolution fostered new ideas about the
universe and mankind. Many concepts, such as the heliocentric model, challenged
the Catholic Church and the Bible, changing the way humans viewed God. The
Scientific Revolution also engendered more rational thinking in the way humans
viewed God, and philosophically.
heliocentric conception of the universe
Caused conflict between science
and the Church, which had always been loyal to the Ptolemaic system
Church claimed Copernicus’s
theory as fallacy
Newton’s theory of gravity
Religion not necessary to explain
the occurrences of Nature
propagated the ideas of Copernicus
Church persecution ->people
question the omniscience of religion
Bacon encouraged the use of mathematics in order to produce more rational
Reason becomes a key theme of the
increased accessibility of using deductive reasoning to discover things
No longer necessary to intuit
no longer necessary to intuit how God made the natural world in the way that it
is, because it was being explained by scientific reasoning
more prevalent rational thinking of the era led to a decrease in events like
Witch Hunts, which were born from superstition
gives outlines to a book used for the AP European History exam
This map of
Europe in the 16th century, displays the Holy Roman Empire while
still a big contender in Continental politics, before it began its ultimate
decline; it also lacks the redrawings of borders that would come with the Peace
of Westphalia at the close of the Thirty Years’ War in 1648.
vs. Charles V
posted his 95 Theses, decrying certain practices of the Catholic Church, most
especially the practice of granting indulgences, which he viewed as corruption
rather than mercy. Charles V originally dismissed them saying it was, “an
argument between monks.” However, Charles was forced to recognize the threat
that Luther posed as he grew more influential and, in 1521, called him to the
Diet of Worms to discuss his qualms and reaffirm his views after the Papal Bull
Exsurge Domine pointed to errors in
his 95 Theses. The following Edict of Worms denounced Martin Luther as a false
leader within the Church.
associated Luther with the German Peasants’ Revolt of 1524 to 1526, for which
Charles was forced to divert considerable resources to suppress, though Luther
was personally opposed to the movement.
Social- the German
Peasants’ Revolt (1524-1526) sought to strengthen the role of the peasant
within the context of his/her society, as well as in the context on the Church,
which was the dominant force of that time
Political- the Hundred
Years’ War (1337-1452) revolutionized relations between European nations,
namely France and England, and left them devastated economically and
militarily. It was also during this time that the longbow came to wide usage
(by the English), as did the cannon.
Protestant Reformation, led by such men as Martin Luther, Ulrich Zwingli, and
John Calvin, revolutionized thought about the role of the Church in society, as
well as its position in the relationship between a supplicant and God.
Italian Renaissance, a rebirth of art and literature after the intercession of
the period known as the Middle ages, expanded the concept of Humanism and the
focus on an individual’s potential. It was during this time that there was much
emphasis placed on the greatness of classical (Ancient Greek and Roman)
Printing Press, invented in the 1450s by Johann Gutenberg, allowed for a grand
proliferation and decrease in cost of producing and obtaining of literature,
most namely the Bible.
Economic- The Age of
Discovery was the time in which European explorers traveled to the New World to
find resources and the peoples that lived there. It was during this time that
the system of Triangular Trade was set up, transferring goods and people
between Europe, Africa, and the New World. The dependence on the New World that
resulted led to the Columbian Exchange, the transfer of plants, animals and
diseases between new European territories in the New World and Europe. Overall,
it provided for a generally prosperous era.