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Art/ Architecture


“School of Athens” – Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino)

            The fresco in the Apostolic Palace of the Vatican is widely considered to be the perfect embodiment of the classical period in the High Renaissance. 

              The Ashmolean – Museum of Art & Archaeology. Ashmolean.museum. Retrieved on 2012-3-31.



The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore (English: Basilica of Saint Mary of the Flower) was consecrated in 1436 in Florence, Italy. It’s Duomo (Dome) was influenced and designed directly by the Pantheon’s dome in Rome.



Posted by on 05/18/2012 at 1:28 am | Comments & Trackbacks (0) | Permalink

The Grand Sweep

Discuss how Renaissance ideas are expressed in the
Italian art of the period, referring to specific works of art and artists.

The Italian
Renaissance, spanning from the fourteenth to early sixteenth century, was a
rebirth of art and literature after the bleak era known as the Middle Ages.
During this rebirth, classical themes and focus on the ability of an individual
– a concept drawn from the prevalent philosophy of the age, Humanism – as well
as ecclesiastical topics, flourished in the works of such artists as
Michelangelo, Leonardo DaVinci, and Raphael.

  1. Classical Themes

    1. School
      of Athens by Raphael
    2. Dying
      Slave by Michelangelo
    3. Focus on the Ability of the

      1. David
        by Michelangelo
      2. The
        style of mannerism prevalent in Raphael’s later works
      3. DaVinci’s
        sketches (Vitruvian Man)
      4. Ecclesiastical Topics

        1. The
          Last Supper by DaVinci
        2. Pieta
          by Michelangelo
        3. Madonna
          on the Rocks by DaVinci


Analyze three relationships between Romanticism and

In the early
nineteenth century, a widespread and general movement of nationalism swept
across the countries of Europe. Romanticism, a movement in art and literature
which began partially as a revolt against industrialization and which stressed
the importance of nature, emotion, and grandeur, was soon associated with the
national movement. The relationship between the two can be seen in the
personage of Goethe, as well as in the works of English Romantics and Romantic

  1. Goethe and Germany

    1. Hailed
      as a sort of hero for his renown
    2. Wrote
      of issues concerning his own nation (Sorrow of Young Werther)
    3. Emblematic
      symbol of German Romanticism (provides rallying point for German people
    4. The Works of English Romantics

      1. Robert
        Southey’s disgust at the rise of industry in Manchester

Shows his wish that England
remain beautiful

  1. Settings
    (such as Wordsworth’s “Tinturn Abbey”)
  2. Romantic Paintings

    1. Depict
      their nation in a good light (not always the truest)
    2. Focus
      on brilliant landscapes
    3. Pride
      in one’s nation inspired exaggeration of greatness



Assess the impact of the Scientific Revolution on
religion and philosophy in the period 1550 to 1750.

the period of 1550-1750 the Scientific Revolution fostered new ideas about the
universe and mankind. Many concepts, such as the heliocentric model, challenged
the Catholic Church and the Bible, changing the way humans viewed God. The
Scientific Revolution also engendered more rational thinking in the way humans
viewed God, and philosophically.

  1. Religion

    1. Copernicus’s
      heliocentric conception of the universe

Caused conflict between science
and the Church, which had always been loyal to the Ptolemaic system
Church claimed Copernicus’s
theory as fallacy

  1. Isaac
    Newton’s theory of gravity

Religion not necessary to explain
the occurrences of Nature

  1. Galileo
    propagated the ideas of Copernicus

Church persecution ->people
question the omniscience of religion

  1. Philosophy

    1. Francis
      Bacon encouraged the use of mathematics in order to produce more rational

Reason becomes a key theme of the

  1. The
    increased accessibility of using deductive reasoning to discover things

No longer necessary to intuit

  1. Philosophy
    no longer necessary to intuit how God made the natural world in the way that it
    is, because it was being explained by scientific reasoning
  2. The
    more prevalent rational thinking of the era led to a decrease in events like
    Witch Hunts, which were born from superstition





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Online Resources

The following
gives outlines to a book used for the AP European History exam






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European Map

This map of
Europe in the 16th century, displays the Holy Roman Empire while
still a big contender in Continental politics, before it began its ultimate
decline; it also lacks the redrawings of borders that would come with the Peace
of Westphalia at the close of the Thirty Years’ War in 1648.

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Points of Conflict

Martin Luther
vs. Charles V


Martin Luther
posted his 95 Theses, decrying certain practices of the Catholic Church, most
especially the practice of granting indulgences, which he viewed as corruption
rather than mercy. Charles V originally dismissed them saying it was, “an
argument between monks.” However, Charles was forced to recognize the threat
that Luther posed as he grew more influential and, in 1521, called him to the
Diet of Worms to discuss his qualms and reaffirm his views after the Papal Bull
Exsurge Domine pointed to errors in
his 95 Theses. The following Edict of Worms denounced Martin Luther as a false
leader within the Church.

Later, Charles
associated Luther with the German Peasants’ Revolt of 1524 to 1526, for which
Charles was forced to divert considerable resources to suppress, though Luther
was personally opposed to the movement.

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Points of Conflict

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6 Examples of How Our Century Is Reflected in the AP Euro Themes

Social- the German
Peasants’ Revolt (1524-1526) sought to strengthen the role of the peasant
within the context of his/her society, as well as in the context on the Church,
which was the dominant force of that time


Political- the Hundred
Years’ War (1337-1452) revolutionized relations between European nations,
namely France and England, and left them devastated economically and
militarily. It was also during this time that the longbow came to wide usage
(by the English), as did the cannon.


Religious- the
Protestant Reformation, led by such men as Martin Luther, Ulrich Zwingli, and
John Calvin, revolutionized thought about the role of the Church in society, as
well as its position in the relationship between a supplicant and God.


Intellectual- the
Italian Renaissance, a rebirth of art and literature after the intercession of
the period known as the Middle ages, expanded the concept of Humanism and the
focus on an individual’s potential. It was during this time that there was much
emphasis placed on the greatness of classical (Ancient Greek and Roman)


Technological- The
Printing Press, invented in the 1450s by Johann Gutenberg, allowed for a grand
proliferation and decrease in cost of producing and obtaining of literature,
most namely the Bible.


Economic- The Age of
Discovery was the time in which European explorers traveled to the New World to
find resources and the peoples that lived there. It was during this time that
the system of Triangular Trade was set up, transferring goods and people
between Europe, Africa, and the New World. The dependence on the New World that
resulted led to the Columbian Exchange, the transfer of plants, animals and
diseases between new European territories in the New World and Europe. Overall,
it provided for a generally prosperous era.

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Spotlight: Martin Luther

Martin Luther

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Renaissance SPRITE

Renaissance SPRITE

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Important Ideas of European History: 14th, 15th, and 16th


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